There are 4 clinical trials
There is substantial research on the effects of physical exercise on cognitive functions. However, less attention has been paid on the requirements of training intensity and length to enhance cognitive abilities in the elderly. To the investigators knowledge no studies have evaluated the effects of extensive endurance exercise training on cognitive functions by studying elderly marathon runners and bicyclists. On the basis of the scientific literature published so far it is not known whether the beneficial impact of endurance exercise training depends on the intensity of training. The investigators therefore designed a cohort study with adequate power in order to evaluate the effects of intensive endurance exercise training on cognition. This trial, an Austrian prospective cohort study in cognitive function of elderly marathon-runners (APSOEM) is being conducted and will compare neuropsychological performance outcomes of elderly marathon runners or bicyclists with controls matched concerning age, education years, occupation, and verbal intelligence.
For this, pre-designed TaqMan SNP-Genotyping assays to distinguish the ApoE ε4 allele from ε2 and ε3 at amino acid position 112 (ApoE rs429358, Assay ID C_3084793_20, Applied Biosystems) and the ApoE ε2 allele from ε3 and ε4 at amino acid position 158 (rs7412, Assay ID C_904973_10, Applied Biosystems) were purchased.
Description: Hypothesis will be tested at the second follow-up examinations.Measure: the Proportion of Subjects, Who Will Develop Mild Cognitive Impairment Time: 10 years
Description: The following self rating scales were used: WHO-5 Quality of Life Assessment (Braeher, E., Muehlan, H., Albani, C., & Schmidt, S. (2007). Testing and standardization of the German version of the EUROHIS-QOL and WHO-5 quality-of life-indices. Diagnostica, 53(2), 83-96.). Range: 0 - 25, higher scores indicate better quality of life.Measure: Self Rating by Questionnaires Time: Baseline and 5 years
The primary aim of this study is to determine whether the cholesterol-lowering efficacy of barley b- glucan varied as function of molecular weight (MW) and the total daily amount consumed. Our second aim is to investigate the mechanism responsible for the action, specifically, whether β-glucan lowers circulating cholesterol concentration via inhibiting cholesterol absorption and synthesis. Thirdly, we aim to determine if any gene-diet interactions are associated with cholesterol lowering by barley β-glucan. In addition, we aim to investigate the alteration of the gut microbiota after β-glucan consumption and the correlation between the altered gut microbiota and cardiovascular disease risk factors.
The Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) rs3808607 of CYP7A1 gene, rs429358 and rs7412 of APOE gene, and their associations with different blood lipid responses to beta-glucan interventions will be determined.. Changes in Body Weight and Waist Circumference(WC).
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs3808607 of gene CYP7A1and rs429358 and rs7412 will be determined byTaqMan® SNP Genotyping assay following the manufacturer's protocol.
Description: Fasted total cholesterol concentration will be measured using the automated enzymatic methods.Measure: Changs in Total Cholesterol Time: Beginning and end of each phase
Description: Serum LDL cholesterol will be estimated using the Friedewald equation.Measure: Changes in LDL Cholesterol Time: Beginning and end of each phase
Description: The rate of cholesterol absorption and synthesis will be measured in each intervention phase using single stable isotope labelling technique.Measure: Cholesterol Absorption/Synthesis Time: End of each phase
Description: The Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) rs3808607 of CYP7A1 gene, rs429358 and rs7412 of APOE gene, and their associations with different blood lipid responses to beta-glucan interventions will be determined.Measure: Potential Gene-nutrient Interactions: CYP7A1 and APOE Time: Once for each participant
Description: Body weight will be monitored every day when subject visits the Richardson Centre. Waist circumference will be measured at the beginning and end of each study phase.Measure: Changes in Body Weight and Waist Circumference(WC) Time: Every day for body weight; beginning and end of each phase for WC
Raised blood cholesterol (also referred to as blood LDL-cholesterol) is a major risk factor for developing heart disease. Dietary saturated fat is recognised as the main dietary component responsible for raising blood LDL-cholesterol, and reducing its intake has been the mainstay of dietary guidelines for the prevention of heart disease for over 30 years. However, there is very little evidence for a direct link between the intake of saturated fat and risk of dying from heart disease. One explanation for this, is that the link between saturated fat intake and heart disease is not a direct one, but relies heavily on the ability of saturated fat to raise blood LDL-cholesterol levels. This LDL cholesterol-raising effect of saturated fat is complex, and highly variable between individuals because of differences in the metabolism of dietary fat and cholesterol between people. The main aim of this study is to measure the amount of variation in blood LDL-cholesterol in 150 healthy volunteers (75 at the University of Surrey and 75 at the University of Reading) in response to lowering the amount of saturated fat in the diet to the level recommended by the government for the prevention of heart disease. This collaborative project between the Universities of Reading, Surrey and Imperial ('RISSCI-1 Blood Cholesterol Response Study') will permit identification of two subgroups of men who show either a high or low LDL-cholesterol response to a reduction in dietary saturated intake. These participants (n=36) will be provided with an opportunity to participate in a similar follow-up study ('RISSCI-2') that will also take place at the University of Surrey and Reading. In this follow-up study, the participants will be asked to repeat a similar study protocol as for RISSCI-1, but undergo more detailed measurements to determine how saturated fat is metabolised in the body.
rs429358 and rs7412), APOA-I (e.g.
Description: Polymorphic genes with potential influence on the serum LDL response to dietary saturated fat, e.g.: ATP-binding cassette proteins (cholesterol efflux proteins) ABCG5 (e.g. C1950G) ABCG8 (e.g. D19H, C1895T), functional polymorphisms in the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and bile acid transporters (e.g. solute carrier organics anion 1B1). Fatty acid desaturases (FADS1 and FADS2). The patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein (PNPLA3) (e.g. rs738409 C/G), eNOS. Lipid/cholesterol homeostasis: serum apolipoprotein genes: APOE (ε2,ε3,ε4 e.g. rs429358 and rs7412), APOA-I (e.g. -75G/A), APOA4 (e.g. 360-2), APOA5 (e.g. -113/T>:c), APOCIII, APOB (e.g. -516C/T). Lipase genes: (e.g. LPL, HL, MGLL). Lipoprotein receptor genes (e.g. pvu11 in the LDL receptor), lipid transfer proteins (e.g. CETP e.g Taq1B, MTP), and other polymorphic genes related to the absorption and metabolism of dietary fat and regulation of lipid/cholesterol homeostasis.Measure: Other relevant genes involved in the absorption and metabolism of dietary fat Time: Baseline
Description: Analyses conducted by Imperial College LondonMeasure: Metabolomic analysis for the determination of the low molecular weight metabolite profiles in the biological fluids Time: Baseline, 4 weeks (after diet 1), 8 weeks (after diet 2)
Description: BMI will also be calculated (kg/ height in m^2)Measure: Weight Time: Baseline, 4 weeks (after diet 1), 8 weeks (after diet 2)
Description: Measured via pulse wave assessment using the Mobil-O-graph device.Measure: Fasting vascular stiffness Time: baseline, 4 weeks (after diet 1), 8 weeks (after diet 2)
Haematological malignancies constitute the most common neoplastic disease in child population, with acute leukemia occupying the number one spot with a percentage of 32.8%. In children, leukaemia is primarily encountered in its acute form (97%) and in the majority of the cases it is presented as Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia - ALL (80%). Acute Non-Lymphoblastic Leukemia - ANLL is encountered less frequently (17%) and it includes Acute Myelogenous Leukaemia - AML (15%) and some other rare forms (2%), while the remainder 3% corresponds to chronic leukaemia. L-Asparaginase (L-ASP) is a fundamental component during the loading phase with regards to achieving remission of the disease and, likewise, during the maintenance phase with the intention of establishing that remission in both children and adults suffering from ALL. The cytotoxic effect of the exogenous administration of Asparaginase is caused by the depletion of the reserve of asparagine in the blood. Asparaginase (ASP) acts as a catalyst for the hydrolysis of asparagine to aspartic acid and ammonia. Asparagine is vital for protein and cell synthesis and, therefore, for their survival. The normal cells of the human body have the ability to produce asparagine from aspartic acid, with the assistance of the enzyme asparagine synthetase. However, the neoplastic cells either lack the enzyme completely or contain minute amounts of it resulting in their inability to synthesize asparagine de novo. The survival of these cells and their ability to synthesize proteins depends entirely on receiving asparagine from the blood. Thus, the administration of ASP leads to the inhibition of DNA, RNA and protein synthesis which, in turn, results in the apoptosis of these cells. Despite L-ASP's paramount importance in the chemotherapy treatment of leukaemia, it is responsible for a plethora of toxic adverse effects that sometimes even require the termination of its administration. A critical adverse event of ASP is a disorder in the metabolism of lipids. Specifically, it appears that the activation of the endogenous pathway that produces triglycerides through hepatic synthesis leads to hypertriglyceridaemia. The liver is capable of synthesizing VLDL (Very Low Density Lipoproteins) that are rich in triglycerides. Utilising the effect of the enzyme Lipoprotein Lipase (LpL), located on the vascular endothelium, the triglycerides detach from the VLDL causing the latter to transform into IDL (Intermediate Density Lipoproteins) and afterwards into LDL (Low Density Lipoproteins). The triglycerides are later extracted from the blood circulatory system and stored in the adipose tissue, while the LDL particles connect with tissue receptors or macrophage receptors. The final products of the breakdown (coming from the peripheral hydrolysis of triglycerides with the help of LpL) of chylomicrons, VLDL, the remnants of lipoproteins, will eventually be removed by hepatic receptors. Apolipoprotein E (Apo-E) plays an important role in this procedure, it binds these remnants in the presence of LpL and hepatic lipase. Along the duration of the treatment with ASP, reduced LpL functionality is recorded, resulting in impaired plasma clearance of triglycerides and an increase in their levels, while L-ASP appears to cause disorders in other lipid factors, such as cholesterol, HDL and apolipoprotein A. Disorders of lipid metabolism have been found to be associated with polymorphisms of the LpL and Apo-E genes, sometimes with positive and sometimes with negative effects on the lipid profile and more likely participation in cardiovascular complications. The current study will evaluate, the lipid profile of children with ALL, the effect of L-ASP on the lipid profile of the aforementioned patients, as well as the correlation between the polymorphisms of Lipoprotein Lipase (LpL) and Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) with the values of the lipids during chemotherapy. Both the universal and national bibliography that pertain to the effect of ASP on the potency of LpL and App E and to the values of the lipids in children that suffer from ALL during chemotherapy with L-ASP is limited, while there exists no bibliographic reference correlating the genetic background to LpL and Apo E and the relation of the lipid profile. The current study will examine for the first time gene polymorphisms of LpL and Apo E in children with ALL during treatment with ASP.
Moreover, an examination of LpL polymorphisms (the three most common polymorphisms p.N291S, p.D9N, p.S447X) and of Apo E polymorphisms [ε2(rs7412-T,rs429358-T), ε3(rs7412-C, rs429358-T) and ε4 (rs7412-C, rs429358-C)] will be performed after isolating the DNA from the peripheral blood and analyzing it with molecular techniques.
Description: The genotypes of children with ALL will be recorded and it might constitute an early indicative factor concerning the treatment's outcome. Thusly, essential information will be extracted about the possible contribution of genotype of children under treatment with L-ASP to the lipid disorder as shown in the lab results, to better monitoring of each unique phase of the therapy for clinical occurrences and complication and to faster therapeutic intervention.Measure: The correlation of lipoprotein lipase (LpL) and apolipoprotein E (apoE) polymorphisms with lipid values during the chemotherapy protocol. Time: Baseline
Description: During the disease's diagnosis, the lipid profile of the patients' will be determined by measuring the changes of the following parameters compared to the baseline measures: cholesterol (mg/dl), triglycerides(mg/dl), HDL-cholesterol(mg/dl), LDL-cholesterol(mg/dl), apolipoprotein A1(mg/dl), apolipoprotein B100(g/L), lipoprotein α [Lp(α)](nmol/l), glucose (mg/dl), SGOT (U/I), SGPT (U/I), TSH (mU/l) FT4 (pmol/l) amylase (U/I) and lipase (U/I).Measure: Assessment of the effect of asparaginase by measuring the changes induced in the lipid profile of children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Time: Baseline and days 11, 15, 24, 33 in loading phase and days 8, 16, 21 in maintenance phase