|drug1091||Drug: Isotretinoin(Aerosolized 13 cis retinoic acid) Wiki||1.00|
|drug3768||blood test for SARS-COV2 serology Wiki||1.00|
|D003141||Communicable Diseases NIH||0.07|
There is one clinical trial.
Efficacy and safety of Drug combination therapy of Isotretinoin and some Anti fungal Drugs as A potential Aerosol therapy for COVID-19 : An innovative therapeutic approach The pandemic of COVID-19 which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) has infected over 2,000,000 people causing over 150,000 deaths.It hasno currently approved treatments.. Airborne SARS-CoV-2 infections in humans initiate from the virus entering nasal and airway epithelial cells through binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). TMPRSS2, a cellular protease that activates the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, colocalizes with ACE2 and can prime SARS-CoV-2 fusion directly at the plasma membrane. In the lungs, SARS-CoV-2 infects type I and type II alveolar epithelial cells, as well as alveolar macrophages that are among the first producers of pro-inflammatory cytokines. As key components of the immediate antiviral response, type I interferons (here after referred to as IFNs) are crucial for restricting viral replication and spread, through autocrine and paracrine type I IFN receptor (IFNAR) signalling. However, minimal amounts of IFNs have been detected in the peripheral blood or lungs of patients with severe COVID-19 In a mouse model of SARS-CoV infection, local IFN responses in the lungs were delayed relative to peak viral replication, which impeded virus clearance and was associated with the development of CRS . SARS-CoV-2 ORF3b is a potent interferon inhebitor and antagonist Here, we review the molecular mechanisms by which Retinoic acid (isotretinoin) and antifungal drugs can cooperate to induce interferon in covid-19 infected patients A study reported that 13 Cis retinoic acid induced significant upregulation of toll-like receptor 3 resulting in an immune response to dsRNA intermediate which can be partially generated during CoV-2 replication . TLR3 sensitized by dsRNA and cascades of signaling pathways (Interferon-regulatory factor 1 (IRFs) and Nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) activation, respectively) are activated to produce type I interferons. The production of type I IFNs is important to enhance the release of antiviral proteins for the protection of uninfected cells. RA can be generated in multiple forms as all-trans, 9-cis,and 13-cis retinoic acid. A study reported that Retinoic acid induces directly the expression of two transcription factors, Stat1 and IRF-1 which play central roles in the IFN signal transduction. In addition, RA induces IFN-a synthesis, IFNs can serve as the first line of immune defense against viral infections. IFNs are very powerful cytokines, which play a key role in combatting pathogenic infections by controlling inflammation and immune response by directly inducing antipathogen molecular countermeasures. There are three classes of IFNs: type I, type II, and type III. Antifungal drug. Fluconazol or itraconazol can inhibit cytochrome P450 enzymes, especially cype 26 which control retinoic acid concentration into human cells enhance both isotretinoin effect and Concentrations in Target Tissues This in turn lead to hyper interferon induction and synthesis in case of COVID-19. Also a study demonstrated that isotretinoin can be given as aerosolized via inhalation rout without any damage in lung cells. Repeated high doses of 13 cis retinoic by inhalation resulted in moderate loss of body weight, but microscopic investigation of ten tissues including lung and oesophagus did not detect any significant aerosol-induced damage therefore inhaled isotretinoin might provide sufficient drug to the target cells in lung for efficacy while avoiding systemic toxicity. In conclusion,isotretinoin therapy has furthermore a proven anti-inflammatory, anti-platelet and fibrinolytic activities which may protect patients infected with covid-19 from widespread blood clots. From this point, we suggest that isotretinoin will be the immunity passport" in the context of COVID-19.
Description: proportion of lung injury score decreased or increased after treatmentMeasure: lung injury score Time: at 7and 14 days
Description: Lymphocyte countsMeasure: Absolute lymphocyte counts Time: at day 7 and 14 after randimization
Description: Serum levels of CRP, ESR ,IL-1,IL-6,TNF and Type I interferonsMeasure: Serum levels of CRP, ESR ,IL-1,IL-6,TNF and Type I interferons Time: at day 7 and 14 after randimization
Description: DiedMeasure: All cause mortality rate Time: at day 7 and 14
Description: Serum level of viral RNAMeasure: Serum level of viral RNA Time: at day 7 and 14
Description: Ventilation free daysMeasure: Ventilation free days Time: at 14 days
Description: ICU free daysMeasure: ICU free days Time: at 14 days
Data processed on January 01, 2021.
An HTML report was created for each of the unique drugs, MeSH, and HPO terms associated with COVID-19 clinical trials. Each report contains a list of either the drug, the MeSH terms, or the HPO terms. All of the terms in a category are displayed on the left-hand side of the report to enable easy navigation, and the reports contain a list of correlated drugs, MeSH, and HPO terms. Further, all reports contain the details of the clinical trials in which the term is referenced. Every clinical trial report shows the mapped HPO and MeSH terms, which are also hyperlinked. Related HPO terms, with their associated genes, protein mutations, and SNPs are also referenced in the report.Drug Reports MeSH Reports HPO Reports