There is one clinical trial.
We will evaluate low-dose pyridostigmine as add-on therapy to best medical care in patients with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and its related Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) who require hospitalization. Our hypothesis is that, in comparison to the placebo, pyridostigmine will reduce in at least 10% a composite outcome [death; mechanical ventilation; >2 point-increase in the SOFA score) by day 28. We will also evaluate interleukin (IL)-6 kinetics during the first 14 days of in-hospital stay. It is estimated that 25-33% of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 are admitted to intensive care units (ICU) for severe hypoxemia. The reported mortality in those with severe disease ranges between 38% and 49%. So far, there is no pharmacological therapeutic (or else) strategy known to reduce morbidity and mortality in these patients. Mortality in COVID-19 appears to be mediated not necessarily by the direct effect of the infection, but by the disproportionate inflammatory response of the host. Pyridostigmine is an old drug that, by inhibiting acetylcholine-esterase, the enzymatic machinery that degrades acetylcholine (ACh), results in increased ACh bioavailability. ACh, in turn, ligates to nicotinic-alpha7 receptors in macrophages and T cells, resulting in reduced overactivation of these immune cells. In experimental murine sepsis, this family of drugs has resulted in reduced inflammation and mortality. Human evidence is scarce for severe inflammatory conditions. However, recent evidence from our group and others indicates that pyridostigmine has an immunomodulatory effect in people living with HIV, resulting in elevation of CD4+ T cell counts, decreased immune activation, and reduction in inflammatory mediators. Altogether, this suggests that ACh-esterase inhibitors may act as immunomodulators during viral infections, potentially reducing the inflammatory cascade (the so-called "cytokine storm") observed in critically ill COVID-19 patients. At the proposed dose (60mg/d), the rate of minor adverse events is less than 5% with no reported serious adverse effects. From that perspective, we consider that pyridostigmine can function as an immuno-modulator and reduce morbidity and mortality in COVID-19-stricken patients, with the added value of a safe pharmacological profile. Moreover, as an old drug, re-purposing it for a novel indication may be a simpler, more efficient approach than developing a novel one from the ground up.
Description: Composite of death, Need for mechanical ventilation, or an increase of 2 or more points in the SOFA scoreMeasure: Critical condition or death Time: 28 days
Description: Kinetics of circulating IL-6Measure: IL-6 Time: 14 days in-hospital, hospital discharge, or death
Data processed on January 01, 2021.
An HTML report was created for each of the unique drugs, MeSH, and HPO terms associated with COVID-19 clinical trials. Each report contains a list of either the drug, the MeSH terms, or the HPO terms. All of the terms in a category are displayed on the left-hand side of the report to enable easy navigation, and the reports contain a list of correlated drugs, MeSH, and HPO terms. Further, all reports contain the details of the clinical trials in which the term is referenced. Every clinical trial report shows the mapped HPO and MeSH terms, which are also hyperlinked. Related HPO terms, with their associated genes, protein mutations, and SNPs are also referenced in the report.Drug Reports MeSH Reports HPO Reports