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D003643: Death

Developed by Shray Alag, The Harker School
Sections: Correlations, Clinical Trials, and HPO

Correlations computed by analyzing all clinical trials.

Navigate: Clinical Trials and HPO

Correlated Drug Terms (7)

Name (Synonyms) Correlation
drug3187 Storage of operating waste Wiki 0.50
drug3194 Study Group Wiki 0.50
drug3200 Sulfur hexafluoride lipid-type A microspheres Wiki 0.50
Name (Synonyms) Correlation
drug3210 Surfactant assessment Wiki 0.50
drug657 CT-scan with minimal invasive autopsy Wiki 0.50
drug333 Azithromycin Wiki 0.08
drug2448 Placebo Wiki 0.02

Correlated MeSH Terms (14)

Name (Synonyms) Correlation
D000071074 Neonatal Sepsis NIH 0.50
D011645 Puerperal Infection NIH 0.50
D066087 Perinatal Death NIH 0.50
Name (Synonyms) Correlation
D016757 Death, Sudden, Cardiac NIH 0.50
D013610 Tachycardia NIH 0.50
D017180 Tachycardia, Ventricular NIH 0.50
D063130 Maternal Death NIH 0.50
D011251 Pregnancy Complications, Infectious NIH 0.29
D014115 Toxemia NIH 0.22
D007238 Infarction NIH 0.18
D018805 Sepsis NIH 0.18
D009203 Myocardial Ischemia NIH 0.14
D020521 Stroke NIH 0.13
D007239 Infection NIH 0.02

Correlated HPO Terms (8)

Name (Synonyms) Correlation
HP:0003811 Neonatal death HPO 0.50
HP:0001649 Tachycardia HPO 0.50
HP:0004756 Ventricular tachycardia HPO 0.50
Name (Synonyms) Correlation
HP:0040187 Neonatal sepsis HPO 0.50
HP:0001645 Sudden cardiac death HPO 0.50
HP:0100806 Sepsis HPO 0.18
HP:0001658 Myocardial infarction HPO 0.14
HP:0001297 Stroke HPO 0.13

Clinical Trials

Navigate: Correlations   HPO

There are 4 clinical trials

1 Prevention of Maternal and Neonatal Death/Infections With a Single Oral Dose of Azithromycin in Women in Labor (in Low- and Middle-income Countries): a Randomized Controlled Trial

Maternal and neonatal infections are among the most frequent causes of maternal and neonatal deaths, and current antibiotic strategies have not been effective in preventing many of these deaths. Recently, a randomized clinical trial conducted in a single site in The Gambia showed that treatment with oral dose of 2 g azithromycin vs. placebo for all women in labor reduced selected maternal and neonatal infections. However, it is unknown if this therapy reduces maternal and neonatal sepsis and mortality. The A-PLUS trial includes two primary hypotheses, a maternal hypothesis and a neonatal hypothesis. First, a single, prophylactic intrapartum oral dose of 2 g azithromycin given to women in labor will reduce maternal death or sepsis. Second, a single, prophylactic intrapartum oral dose of 2 g azithromycin given to women in labor will reduce intrapartum/neonatal death or sepsis.

  1. Maternal Death
  2. Maternal Infections Affecting Fetus or Newborn
  3. Neonatal SEPSIS
  4. Maternal Sepsis During Labor
  5. Neonatal Death
  6. Postpartum Sepsis
  1. Drug: Azithromycin
  2. Drug: Placebo
MeSH:Infection Sepsis Toxemia Neonatal Sepsis Pregnancy Complications, Infectious Puerperal Infection Perinatal Death Maternal Death Death
HPO:Neonatal death Neonatal sepsis Sepsis

Primary Outcomes

Description: Incidence of maternal death or sepsis within 6 weeks (42 days) post-delivery in intervention vs. placebo group.

Measure: Maternal: Incidence of maternal death or sepsis within 6 weeks (42 days) post-delivery in intervention vs. placebo group.

Time: within 6 weeks (42 days)

Description: Incidence of intrapartum/neonatal death or sepsis within 4 weeks (28 days) post-delivery in intervention vs. placebo group

Measure: Neonatal: Incidence of intrapartum/neonatal death or sepsis within 4 weeks (28 days) post-delivery in intervention vs. placebo group

Time: 4 weeks (28 days) post-delivery

Secondary Outcomes

Description: Fever (>100.4°F/38°C) in addition to one or more of the following: fetal tachycardia ≥160 bpm, maternal tachycardia >100 bpm, tender uterus between contractions, or purulent/foul smelling discharge from uterus prior to delivery.

Measure: Incidence of chorioamnionitis

Time: prior to delivery

Description: Fever (>100.4°F/38°C) in addition to one or more of maternal tachycardia >100 bpm, tender uterine fundus, or purulent/foul smelling discharge from uterus after delivery.

Measure: Incidence of endometritis

Time: within 42 days post-delivery

Description: Wound infection (Purulent infection of a perineal or Cesarean wound with or without fever. In the absence of purulence, requires presence of fever >100.4°F/38°C and at least one of the following signs of local infection: pain or tenderness, swelling, heat, or redness around the incision/laceration); Abdominopelvic abscess (Evidence of pus in the abdomen or pelvis noted during open surgery, interventional aspiration or imaging); Pneumonia (Fever >100.4°F/38°C and clinical symptoms suggestive of lung infection including cough and/or tachypnea >24 breaths/min or radiological confirmation); Pyelonephritis (Fever >100.4°F/38°C and one or more of the following: urinalysis/dip suggestive of infection, costovertebral angle tenderness, or confirmatory urine culture); Mastitis/breast abscess or infection (Fever >100.4°F/38°C and one or more of the following: breast pain, swelling, warmth, redness, or purulent drainage).

Measure: Incidence of other infections

Time: within 42 days post-delivery

Description: Use of subsequent maternal antibiotic therapy after randomization to 42 days postpartum for any reason.

Measure: Incidence of use of subsequent maternal antibiotic therapy

Time: after randomization to 42 days post-delivery

Description: Time from drug administration until initial discharge after delivery (time may vary by site).

Measure: Maternal initial hospital length of stay

Time: within 42 days post-delivery

Description: Maternal readmissions within 42 days of delivery

Measure: Incidence of maternal readmissions

Time: within 42 days post-delivery

Description: Maternal admission to special care units

Measure: Incidence of maternal admission to special care units

Time: within 42 days post-delivery

Description: Maternal unscheduled visit for care

Measure: Incidence of maternal unscheduled visit for care

Time: within 42 days post-delivery

Description: Maternal GI symptoms including nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea and other reported side effects.

Measure: Incidence of maternal GI symptoms

Time: within 42 days post-delivery

Description: Maternal death due to sepsis using the Global Network algorithm for cause of death

Measure: Incidence of maternal death due to sepsis

Time: within 42 days post-delivery

Description: Incidence of other neonatal infections.

Measure: Incidence of other neonatal infections (e.g. eye infection, skin infection)

Time: within 42 days post-delivery

Description: Neonatal initial hospital length of stay, defined as time of delivery until initial discharge (time may vary by site).

Measure: Neonatal initial hospital length of stay

Time: within 28 days of delivery

Description: Neonatal readmissions within 42 days of delivery

Measure: Incidence of neonatal readmissions

Time: within 42 days of delivery

Description: Neonatal admission to special care units

Measure: Incidence of neonatal admission to special care units

Time: within 28 days of delivery

Description: Neonatal unscheduled visit for care

Measure: Incidence of neonatal unscheduled visit for care

Time: within 42 days post-delivery

Description: Neonatal death due to sepsis using the Global Network algorithm for causes of death

Measure: Incidence of neonatal death due to sepsis

Time: within 28 days of delivery

Description: Pyloric stenosis within 42 days of delivery, defined as clinical suspicion based on severe vomiting leading to death, surgical intervention (pyloromyotomy) as verified from medical records, or radiological confirmation.

Measure: Incidence of pyloric stenosis within 42 days of delivery

Time: within 42 days of delivery
2 Increasing Our Understanding of COVID-19: Minimal Invasive Autopsies to Investigate Clinical, Radiological, Microbiological and Histopathological Changes in Deceased COVID-19 Patients

Rationale In a very short time corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a pandemic with high morbidity and mortality. The main cause of death is respiratory failure including acute respiratory distress syndrome, however the exact mechanisms and other underlying pathology is currently not yet known. In the current setting of the COVID-19 pandemic complete autopsies seem too risky due to the risk of SARS CoV-2 transmission. Yet, as so little is known, additional histopathological, microbiological and virologic study of tissue of deceased COVID-19 patients will provide important clinical and pathophysiological information. Minimal invasive autopsy combined with postmortem imaging seems therefore an optimal method combining safety on the one hand yet proving significant information on the other. This study aims to determine the cause of death and attributable conditions in deceased COVID-19 patients. This will be performed using post-mortem CT-scanning plus CT-guided MIA to obtain tissue for further histological, microbiological and pathological diagnostics. In addition, the pathophysiology of COVID-19 will be examined by further tissue analysis.

  1. COVID-19
  1. Procedure: CT-scan with minimal invasive autopsy

Primary Outcomes

Description: For each individual patient the cause of death and contributing factors will be assessed. For each individual these diagnoses will be made during a meeting of a multidisciplinary team consisting of at least an infectious diseases physician, a radiologist and a pathologist. On a case to case basis, additional medical specialists can be asked to attend, including an intensive care specialist, a geriatrician and/or a microbiologist. During the meetings, the clinical, radiological, microbiological and histopathological data will be presented to all attending specialists. The final diagnoses will be based on consensus. Outcomes will be reported as proportions with a 95% confidence interval.

Measure: Determination of cause of death and contributing factors based on clinical, radiological, microbiological and histopathological data of the deceased patient

Time: up to one month

Secondary Outcomes

Description: The radiological findings will be systematically scored as absent or present. These findings will be reported as proportions with a 95% confidence interval.

Measure: Detailed description of the postmortem radiological changes induced by COVID-19

Time: up to one month

Description: On the basis of clinical observations at this moment in time correlations will be done between the renal histology findings of the patients with and without renal failure at death as well as between the cardiac histology findings of the patients with and without clinical signs of myocarditis. However, in the light of continuous clinical observations and new insights, this may be expanded in the future. Outcomes will be reported as proportions with a 95% confidence interval.

Measure: Detailed description of the postmortem histopathological changes induced by COVID-19

Time: up to one month

Description: Describe the quantity of viral RNA in the different tissues and relate this to the clinical, radiological and histopathological findings.

Measure: Postmortem quantity of viral RNA

Time: up to one month

Description: Study in detail the disease mechanisms at cellular level (including ACE-2 receptor expression in relation to quantity of viral RNA) in the different tissues.

Measure: Postmortem disease mechanisms at cellular level

Time: up to one month
3 Acute Cardiovascular Events Triggered by COVID-19-Related, Non-infectious Stress The Jordan COVID-9 caRdiovascular Events (JoCORE) Study

The current COVID19 pandemic has afflicted almost the whole globe. The stress related to the pandemic, not the direct virus-related injury, can be potentially associated with acute cardiovascular events due to a large list of physical and psychosocial stresses. This study is a cross sectional study that will enroll patients evaluated during the COVID19 pandemic period for acute cardiovascular events.

  1. Acute Myocardial Infarction
  2. Ventricular Tachycardia
  3. Sudden Cardiac Death
  4. Stroke, Acute
MeSH:Stroke Myocardial Infarction Tachycardia Tachycardia, Ventricular Death, Sudden, Cardiac Infarction Death
HPO:Myocardial infarction Stroke Sudden cardiac death Tachycardia Ventricular tachycardia

Primary Outcomes

Description: Acute myocardial infarction as diagnosed by ST segment elevation or depression or inverted T wave on 12-lead EKG and elevated levels of cardiac troponins above the 99% of the normal values. A. Acute MI (STEMI and NSTEMI). B. Aborted on non-aborted sudden cardiac death not attributed to a known etiology. C. Sustained or non-sustained ventricular tachy-arrhythmia not attributed to a known etiology. D. ICD shocks. 3. Absence of suspected or confirmed infection with the COVID19 virus. 4. Definite physical or psycho-social stressful trigger appearing in relation to the COVID-19 situation (lock down stress, financial stress, anger, depression, fear, sorrow, death of a significant person, eating binges, smoking binges, physical stress [carrying walking for shopping and carrying excess weights] ..etc) as judged by a unanimous agreement of three investigators in the steering committee.

Measure: Acute cardiovascular event triggered by COVID-19 stress

Time: 4 months

Description: Typical ventricular tachycardia on 12-lead EKG or EKG monitor.

Measure: Ventricular tachycardia

Time: 4 months

Description: acute neurological symptoms of hemiparesis or dysrthria due to brain ischemia proven by computerized tomography or magnatic resonance

Measure: acute stroke

Time: 4 months

Description: Finding an episode of ventricular tachycardia on interrogation of ICD tracing

Measure: Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) shock

Time: 4 months
4 The Impact of Lifestyle Alteration by Strict Prevention Measures on Non-COVID Deaths in the Region With Low COVID-19 Transmission Rate

The increase of all-cause mortality in the areas with high COVID-19 transmission rate due to COVID-19 deaths and the collateral damage to other healthcare problems is well known. However, the COVID-19 mortality is very low in the regions with low transmission rate and sufficient medical resources. In such regions, strict prevention measures were taken and these would alter the people's lifestyle and hygienic habits and further impact on non-COVID-19 deaths. Yet, there has no thorough investigation in this aspect.

  1. Lifestyle Alteration
  2. Non-COVID Deaths

Primary Outcomes

Measure: Numeric values of all-cause death and the death rates of non-COVID diseases

Time: from January 2018 to June 2020

HPO Nodes


Alphabetical listing of all HPO terms. Navigate: Correlations   Clinical Trials

HPO Nodes


Data processed on December 13, 2020.

An HTML report was created for each of the unique drugs, MeSH, and HPO terms associated with COVID-19 clinical trials. Each report contains a list of either the drug, the MeSH terms, or the HPO terms. All of the terms in a category are displayed on the left-hand side of the report to enable easy navigation, and the reports contain a list of correlated drugs, MeSH, and HPO terms. Further, all reports contain the details of the clinical trials in which the term is referenced. Every clinical trial report shows the mapped HPO and MeSH terms, which are also hyperlinked. Related HPO terms, with their associated genes, protein mutations, and SNPs are also referenced in the report.

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