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    HP:0100785: Insomnia

    Developed by Shray Alag, The Harker School
    Sections: Correlations, Clinical Trials, and HPO

    Correlations computed by analyzing all clinical trials.

    Navigate: Clinical Trials and HPO

    Correlated Drug Terms (3)

    Name (Synonyms) Correlation
    drug2935 STI-5656 Wiki 0.58
    drug2010 Mindfulness Based Intervention Wiki 0.41
    drug2448 Placebo Wiki 0.03

    Correlated MeSH Terms (4)

    Name (Synonyms) Correlation
    D007319 Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders NIH 1.00
    D013315 Stress, Psychological NIH 0.10
    D003863 Depression, NIH 0.07
    Name (Synonyms) Correlation
    D018352 Coronavirus Infections NIH 0.02

    Correlated HPO Terms (0)

    Name (Synonyms) Correlation

    Clinical Trials

    Navigate: Correlations   HPO

    There are 3 clinical trials

    1 Who Benefits More? Optimising Mindfulness Based Interventions for Improved Psychological Outcomes

    Mindfulness training has been gaining popularity in the past decade as a means of improving general well-being. This trend appears in response to the new stressors that have arisen with the increased stress of the 21st century. Studies have shown that the psychological state of metacognitive awareness encapsulated in mindfulness can promote the decreasing of stress as well as the secondary effect of improving sleep quality; both outcome measures of this study. While the body of research evaluating these benefits is growing, there is limited emphasis placed on the individual differences that can affect the overall efficacy of mindfulness training. Our aim in this study is to observe the effects of mindfulness training on perceived stress levels as well as on sleep using subjective measures in a large sample of trainees. To achieve this, participants will be recruited from a pool of people who have signed up for a 4-week foundational mindfulness or 8-week mindfulness based stress reduction course at Brahm Centre. Questionnaires will be administered both before and after these courses to evaluate both stress levels and sleep habits as well as other factors which could contribute to the efficacy of mindfulness training. These inventories will probe the different facets of interpersonal differences that could serve to influence the effectiveness of the mindfulness intervention. In addition, the investigators will also test the effect of conducting the course online during a situation of emergency, like it is the partial lockdown that was implemented in Singapore due to the spread of Covid-19. The proposed study has the potential to provide new insights into the factors that affect the efficacy of mindfulness on stress and sleep, in a situation of non-emergency (until February the 6th 2020) as well as during a period of heightened restrictions (DORSCON Orange, from 7th of February to 6th of April 2020) and a partial lockdown (from 7th of April to 1st of June 2020, or until resume of normal activity). Further, the investigators hope to build an algorithm that can predict the potential effectiveness of mindfulness on a person by person basis. This could serve as a foundation for future recommendations for mindfulness training as well as open the door for future studies that could serve to further customize the mindfulness training framework to accommodate individual differences

    1. Stress, Psychological
    2. Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders
    1. Behavioral: Mindfulness Based Intervention
    MeSH:Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders Stress, Psychological

    Primary Outcomes

    Description: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Score (PSQI) is a 19-item self-rated questionnaire for evaluating subjective sleep quality over the previous month. The PSQI has a sensitivity of 89.6% and specificity of 86.5% for identifying cases with sleep disorder, using a cut-off score of 5. The first 4 items are open questions, whereas items 5 to 19 are rated on a 4-point Likert scale. Individual items scores yield 7 components. A total score, ranging from 0 to 21, is obtained by adding the 7 component scores. A score above 5 suggests poor sleep quality. A decrease in PSQI score following intervention would reflect and improvement of sleep quality

    Measure: Change in Subjective measures of Sleep quality: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index total Score

    Time: Up to one month

    Description: The PSS measures whether different aspects of life were perceived as stressful by participants on a 5-point scale (where 0 was never and 4 was very often) in the past month. Positively worded questions are reversed scored and all 10 questions ratings are summarised into a total score, which ranges from 0 to 40, with higher scores indicating more perceived stress.

    Measure: Change in subjective measures of Stress: Perceived Stress Scale (PSS)

    Time: Up to one month

    Secondary Outcomes

    Description: Measured within the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire. This is the total perceived time in bed in minutes, calculated as item 3 of the PSQI ("When have you usually gotten up in the morning?") minus item 1 ("When have you usually gone to bed?")

    Measure: Change in Subjective Time in Bed (TIB)

    Time: Up to one month

    Description: Measured within the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire. Total sleep time reflects the amount of time in minutes participants were effectively sleeping while in bed, without periods of wakefulness, on average over the past month. This will be measured by item 4 of the PSQI questionnaires: "How many hours of actual sleep do you get at night?".

    Measure: Change in Subjective Total Sleep Time (TST)

    Time: Up to one month

    Description: Measured within the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. This is the perceived time, in minutes, that takes participants to fall asleep from the moment they go to bed. This corresponds to item 2 of the PSQI: "How long (in minutes) has it taken you to fall asleep each night?"

    Measure: Change in Subjective Sleep Onset Latency (SOL)

    Time: Up to one month

    Description: Measured within the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire. In addition to Sleep Onset Latency (Secondary outcome 1), a second subjective measure of sleep quality is extracted from the PSQI: time of perceived wakefulness occurring after defined sleep onset. WASO is calculated by taking into account the total time spent in bed (TST) minus total sleep time (TST) and minus sleep onset latency (SOL), in minutes. High WASO scores reflect low sleep continuity and poor sleep quality.

    Measure: Change in Subjective Wake After Sleep Onset (WASO)

    Time: Up to one month
    2 Insomnia After the COVID-19 Pandemic

    The aim of this study is to investigate the levels of insomnia 3 months after (T2) the strict physical distancing government initiated physical distancing protocols related to the COVID-19 pandemic (T1). The study also aims to investigate how predictors measured after and before the COVID-19 pandemic are associated with sleep problems at T2.

    1. Insomnia
    2. Metacognitive Beliefs
    3. Anxiety
    4. Depression
    5. Sleep
    MeSH:Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders

    Primary Outcomes

    Description: Bergen Insomnia scale is developed as a short measure of insomnia consisting of six items measured on a 8-point Likert-scale (Pallesen et al., 2008)

    Measure: Bergen insomnia scale (BIS)

    Time: Data is set to be collected starting from 22th of June. The data collection period will last no longer than three weeks depending on the response to the questionnaire
    3 Evaluation of Mental Health Status and Related Factors Among Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation Physicians During the Covid-19 Pandemic

    In December 2019, a highly infectious disease caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan, China. On March 11th 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 a pandemic. Facing this critical situation, health care workers on the front line are at risk of developing psychological distress and other mental health symptoms. Physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R) physicians works both in specialty outpateint/inpatient clinic and pandemic outpatient/inpatient clinics during the outbreak. Accordingly, PM&R physicians are expected to be mentally affected by COVID-19 pandemic. In this study we aimed to evaluate mental health status of PM&R physicians and related factors during COVID-19 pandemic. This study is a cross-sectional survey which is conducted on an online platform. Demographic data, working conditions of PM&R physicians and factors that may be related to mental health status is questioned in the survey. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale - 21 (DASS-21) is used to measure the emotional states of depression, anxiety and stress.The Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) is used to assess the severity of both nighttime and daytime components of insomnia.

    1. Anxiety
    2. Depression
    3. Insomnia
    4. Covid19
    5. Coronavirus
    MeSH:Coronavirus Infections Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders Depression

    Primary Outcomes

    Description: The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale - 21 Items (DASS-21) is a set of three self-report scales designed to measure the emotional states of depression, anxiety and stress.

    Measure: Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales 21 Score

    Time: 5 months

    Description: The Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) is a brief instrument that was designed to assess the severity of both nighttime and daytime components of insomnia.

    Measure: Insomnia severity index score

    Time: 5 months

    HPO Nodes


    Data processed on December 13, 2020.

    An HTML report was created for each of the unique drugs, MeSH, and HPO terms associated with COVID-19 clinical trials. Each report contains a list of either the drug, the MeSH terms, or the HPO terms. All of the terms in a category are displayed on the left-hand side of the report to enable easy navigation, and the reports contain a list of correlated drugs, MeSH, and HPO terms. Further, all reports contain the details of the clinical trials in which the term is referenced. Every clinical trial report shows the mapped HPO and MeSH terms, which are also hyperlinked. Related HPO terms, with their associated genes, protein mutations, and SNPs are also referenced in the report.

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